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About Malaria




George Dimopoulos

Director of the Parasitology Core Facility
Academic Degrees
PhD, University of Crete, 1996; MBA, Carey Business School of Johns Hopkins University, 2008; BSc, Stockholm University, 1990; UC, Mid Sweden University, 1987
Departmental Affiliation
Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
Departmental Address
615 North Wolfe Street, Suite E3630
Baltimore, MD 21205
Phone: 443-287-0128
Fax: 410-955-0105
Research and Professional Experience

There is a great need to develop novel malaria and dengue control strategies because of the failures of current eradication approaches and the logistical difficulties to implement them. One interesting aspect of these diseases is that the mosquito that transmits the pathogens can mount immune responses against the infection that will kill a large proportion of malaria parasites and inhibit the dengue virus. My group is pursuing research to understand how the mosquito’s immune system and its intestinal microflora is capable of blocking pathogens and how we can use this knowledge to develop human pathogen resistant mosquitoes. We have already made great advances towards this goal, through several independent but synergistically interacting projects, and identified several immune factors and microbes that are responsible for conferring resistance to the parasite and the virus in their respective mosquito vectors. We are generated genetically modified super-immune mosquitoes, with an enhanced immune system, that are resistant to the malaria parasite.

We have also identified bacteria of the mosquito intestine that can either directly or indirectly block the malaria parasite and the dengue virus, thereby rendering the mosquito incapable of transmitting disease. We are currently characterizing these biological systems and processes to assess whether they can be used for the development of disease control strategies. Our competitive advantage derives from a unique blend of core competencies in molecular entomology, innate immunity, microbiology and functional genomics, as well as the access to state-of-the-art research infrastructure. I have studied the molecular biology of mosquitoes that transmit human pathogens since 1991 (BIO & CV) and have had the fortune to experience the generation of knowledge and tools that has the potential to save millions of lives. The long-term goal of my research program is to broaden the basic knowledge of this field and provide new tools for the development of disease control strategies. Read more about our research activities on the Dimopoulos Group website. See also:

Dimopoulos Group Page:

Meet the Dimopoulos Group:

Parasitology Core Facility:

GooGle Scholar:



Malaria, Anopheles gambiae, Plasmodium, Aedes aegypti, Dengue, innate immunity, microbiome, microflora, metagenomics, transcriptomics, genomics, malaria control, dengue control

Honors and Awards

Selected Publications


Blumberg JB, Trop S, Das S, Dimopoulos G (2013) Bacteria- and IMD pathway-independent immune defenses against Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae. PLoS One, Accepted for publication. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4) 


Sim S, Jupatanakul N, Ramirez JL, Kang, S, Romero-Vivas CM, Mohammed H and Dimopoulos G (2013) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions. PLoS NTD, 7(7):e2295. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


BianG, Joshi D, Dong Y, Lu P, Zhou G, Pan X, Xu Y, Dimopoulos G, Xi Z (2013) Wolbachia Invades Anopheles stephensi Populations and Induces Refractoriness to Plasmodium Infection. Science, 340(6133):748-751. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Clayton AM, Cirimotich C, Dong, Y and Dimopoulos G. (2013) Caudal is a negative regulator of the Anopheles Imd pathway that controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 39(4):323-332. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.4)


Dong Y, Cirimotich C, Pike A, Chandra R and Dimopoulos G (2012) Anopheles NF-κB -regulated splicing factors direct pathogen-specific repertoires of the hypervariable pattern recognition receptor AgDscam. Cell Host & Microbe 12, 521–530. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 14.1)


Chen Y, Dong Y, Sandiford S and Dimopoulos G. Transcriptional mediators Kto and Skd are involved in the regulation of the IMD pathway and anti-Plasmodium defense in Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ONE, 2012;7(9):e45580. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4)


Garver LS, Bahia AN, Das S, Souza-Neto J, Shiao J, Dong Y and Dimopoulos G (2012) Anopheles Imd pathway factors and effectors in infection intensity-dependent anti-Plasmodium action. PLoS Pathogens. PLoS Pathogens 8(6): e1002737. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Sim S, Ramirez JL and Dimopoulos G. (2012) Reciprocal interactions between the dengue virus and Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus influences vector competence. PLoS Pathogens. 8(3):e1002631. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Ramirez LJ, Souza-Neto J, Cosme RT, Rovira J, Ortiz A, Pascale JM and Dimopoulos G (2012) Reciprocal Tripartite Interactions between the Aedes aegypti Midgut Microbiota, Innate Immune System and Dengue Virus Influences Vector Competence. PLoS Neglected Trop Dis. 6(3):e1561. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Gomulski L, Dimopoulos G, Xi Z, Gabrieli P, Scolari P, Siciliano P, Malacrida AR, Gasperi G (2012) Changes in gene expression related to maturation and mating in male and female medfly, Ceratitis capitata. PLoS One. 7(1):e30857. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4)


Dong Y, Morton JC Jr, Ramirez JL, Souza-Neto J and Dimopoulos G (2012) The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana activate Toll and JAK-STAT pathway controlled effector genes and anti-dengue activity in Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem. & Mol. Biol. 42(2):126-32.  (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.8)


Dong Y, Das S, Cirimotich CM, Souza-Neto J, McLean K and Dimopoulos G (2011) Engineered Anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection. PLoS Pathogens 7(12): e1002458. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Zou Z, Souza-Neto JA, Xi Z, Kokoza V, Shin SW, Dimopoulos G, and Raikhel AS (2011) Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti transgenic mosquitoes with altered immunity. PLoS Pathogens. 7(11):e1002394. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Cirimotich CM, Dong Y, Clayton AM, Sandiford SL, Souza-Neto JA, Mulenga M, and Dimopoulos G (2011) Natural microbe-mediated refractoriness to Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae. Science 332: 855-858. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Das S., Radtke A., Choi YJ., Mendes A., Valenzuela J. and Dimopoulos G (2010) The salivary gland transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae and its implication in blood feeding. BMC Genomics 11:566. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Bartholomay LC, Waterhouse RM, Mayhew GF, Campbell CL, Michel K, Zou Z, Ramirez JL, Das S, Alvarez K, Arensburger P, Bryant P, Chapman SB, Dong Y, Erickson SM, Karunaratne SHPP, Kokoza V, Kodira CD, Pignatelli P, Shin SW, Vanlandingham DL, Atkinson PW, Birren B, Christophides GK, Clem RJ, Hemingway J, Higgs S, Megy K, Ranson H, Zdobnov EM, Raikhel AS, Christensen BM, Dimopoulos G, and Muskavitch MAT (2010) Pathogenomics of Culex quinquefasciatus and meta-analysis of infection responses to diverse Pathogens. Science 330: 88-90. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Arensburger P, Megy K, Waterhouse R, Abrudan J, Amedeo P, Antelo B, Bartholomay L, Bidwell S, Caler E, Camara F, Campbell CL, Campbell KS, Casola C, Castro MT, Chandramouliswaran I, Chapman SB, Christley S, Costas J, Eisenstadt E, Feschotte C, Fraser-Liggett C, Guigo R, Haas B, Hammond M, Hansson BS, Hemingway J, Hill SR, Howarth C, Ignell R, Kennedy RC, Kodira CD, Lobo NF, Mao C, Mayhew G, Michel K, Mori A, Liu N, Naveira H, Nene V, Nguyen N, Pearson MD, Pritham EJ, Puiu D, Qi Y, Ranson H, Ribeiro JMC, Robertson HM, Severson DW, Shumway M, Stanke M, Strausberg MR, Sun C, Sutton G, Tu Z, Tubio JMC, Unger MF, Vanlandingham VL, Vilella AJ, White O, White JR, Wondji CS, Wortman J, Zdobnov EM, Birren B, Christensen BM, Collins FH, Cornel A, Dimopoulos G, Hannick LI, Higgs S, Lanzaro G, Lee N, Muskavitch MAT, Raikhel A, Atkinson P (2010) Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for  mosquito comparative genomics. Science 330: 86-88. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Aguilar R, Simard F, Kamdem C, Shields T, Glass GE, Garver LS, and Dimopoulos G (2010) Genome-wide analysis of transcriptomic divergence between laboratory colony and field Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes of the M and S molecular forms. Insect Mol Biol. 19(5):695-705. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.7)


Sim S and Dimopoulso G (2010) Dengue Virus Inhibits Immune Responses in Aedes aegypti Cells. PLoS One, 18;5(5):e10678. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4)


Ramirez JL and Dimopoulos G (2010) The Toll immune signaling pathway control conserved anti-dengue defenses across diverse Ae. aegypti strains and against multiple dengue virus serotypes. Dev Comp Immunol. 34: 625-629. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.4)


Mair GR, Lasonder E, Garver LS, Franke-Fayard B, Carret CK, Wiegant J, Dirks R, Dimopoulos G., Janse CJ, Waters AP. (2010) An evolutionarily ancient P body controls zygote development in the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. PLoS Pathogens 12;6: e1000767. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Souza-Neto JA, Sim S, and Dimopoulos G. (2009) Evolutionary conserved function of the JAK-STAT pathway in anti-dengue defense. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106:17841- 6. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dong Y., Manfredini F. and Dimopoulos G. (2009) Implication of the Mosquito Midgut  Microbiota in the Defense Against Malaria Parasites. PLoS Pathogens, 5(5), e1000423. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Erickson SA, Xi Z, Mayhew GF, Ramirez JL, Aliota MT, Christensen BM, Dimopoulos G. (2009) Mosquito Infection Responses to Developing Filarial Worms. PLoS Trop. Negl. Dis. 3(10):e529. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Baton LA, Robertson A, Warr E, Strand MR, and Dimopoulos G. (2009) Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of Anopheles gambiae hemocytes reveals pathogen-specific signatures upon bacterial challenge and Plasmodium berghei infection. BMC Genomics, 10(1):257. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Sessions OM,  Barrows N,  Souza-Neto JA, Robinson TJ, Hershey CL, Rodgers MA, Ramirez JL, Dimopoulos G,  Yang PL,  Pearson JL,  and Garcia-Blanco MA. (2009) Discovery of Dengue Virus Host Factors in Insects and Humans. Nature, 458(7241):1047-1050. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 36.1) 

Dong, Y. and Dimopoulos, G., (2009) Anopheles fibrinogen –related proteins provide expanded pattern recognition capacity against bacteria and malaria parasites. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Feb 4. Epub ahead of print. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 8.8)


Garver LS., Dong Y., and Dimopoulos G. (2009) Caspar control resistant to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse Anopheline species. PLoS Pathogens, Mar;5(3):e1000335. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Das S., and Dimopoulos G. (2008) Molecular analysis of photic inhibition of blood-feeding in Anopheles gambiae. BMC Physiology 16;8(1):23. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.7)


Abrantes A., Dimopoulos G., Grosso AR., do Rosário VE. and Silveira H. (2008) Chloroquine mediated modulation of Anopheles gambiae gene expression. PLoS ONE 2;3(7). (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4)


Xi Z., Ramirez JL., Dimopoulos G. (2008) The Aedes aegypti Toll pathway controls dengue virus infection. PLoS Pathog.4(7). (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Gomulski LM., Dimopoulos G., Xi Z., Soares MB., Bonaldo MF., Malacrida AR., Gasperi G. (2008) Gene discovery in an invasive tephritid model pest species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. BMC Genomics 2008, 9:248. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Warr, E., Das, S., Dong, Y., and Dimopoulos, G. (2008) The Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein gene family: Its role in the innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae and in anti-Plasmodium defense. Insect Mol. Biol., 17:39-51. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.7)


Garver, LS, Xi, Z and Dimopoulos, G. (2008) Immunoglobulin superfamily members play an important role in the mosquito immune system, Dev. & Comp. Immunol. 32:519-31. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.4)


Aguilar, R., Das, S., Dong, Y. and Dimopoulos, G. (2007) Continuous exposure to Plasmodium results in decreased susceptibility and transcriptomic divergence of the Anopheles gambiae immune system. BMC Genomics, 8:451. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Waterhouse, RM, Kriventseva, EV, Meister, S, Xi, Z, Alvarez, KV, Bartholomay, LC, Barillas-Mury, C, Bian, G, Blandin, S, Christensen, BM, Dong, Y, Jiang, H, Kanost, MR, Koutsos, AC, Levashina, EA, Li, J, Ligoxygakis, P, MacCallum, RM, Mayhew, GF, Mendes, A, Michel, K, Osta, MA, Paskewitz, S, Shin SW, Vlachou, D, Wang, L, Wei, W, Zheng, L, Zou, Z, Severson, DW, Raikhel, AS, Kafatos, FC, Dimopoulos, G, Zdobnov, EM, Christophides, GK (2007) Evolutionary dynamics of immune-related genes and pathways in disease vector mosquitoes. Science, 316:1738-1743. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.7)


Nene, V, Wortman, JR, Lawson, D, Haas, B, Kodira, C, Tu, ZJ, Loftus, B, Xi, Z, Megy, K, Grabherr, M, Ren, Q, Zdobnov, EM, Lobo, NF, Campbell, KS, Brown, SE, Bonaldo, MF, Zhu, J, Sinkins, SP, Hogenkamp, DG, Amedo, P, Arsenburger, P, Atkinson, PW, Bidwell, S, Biedler, J, Birney, E, Bruggner, RV, Costas, J, Coy, MR, Crabtree, J, Crawford, M, Debruyn, B, Decaprio, D, Eiglmeier, K, Eisenstadt, E, El-Dorry, H, Gelbart, WM, Gomes, SL, Hammond, M, Hannick, LI, Hogan, JR, Holmes, MH, Jaffe, D, Johnston, SJ, Kennedy, RC, Koo H, Kravitz, S, Kriventseva, EV, Kulp, D, Labutti, K, Lee, E, Li S, Lovin, DD, Mao, C, Mauceli, E, Menck, CF, Miller, JR, Montgomery, P, Mori, A, Nascimento, AL, Naveira, HF, Nusbaum, C, O'leary, SB, Orvis, J, Pertea, M, Quesneville, H, Reidenbach, KR, Rogers, YH, Roth, CW, Schneider, JR, Schatz, M, Shumway, M, Stanke, M, Stinson, EO, Tubio, JM, Vanzee, JP, Verjovski-Almeida, S, Werner, D, White, O, Wyder, S, Zeng, Q, Zhao, Q, Zhao, Y, Hill, CA, Raikhel, AS, Soares, MB, Knudson, DL, Lee ,NH, Galagan, J, Salzberg, SL, Paulsen, IT, Dimopoulos, G, Collins, FH, Bruce, B, Fraser-Liggett, CM, Severson, DW. (2007) Genome sequence of Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector. Science, 316:1718-1723. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.7)


Warr, E, Aguilar, R, Dong, Y. and Dimopoulos, G. (2007) Transcriptome and proteome dissection of the Anopheles gambiae midgut. BMC Genomics, 8:37. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.2)


Warr, E, Lambrechts, L, Bourgouin C, Koella, J, and Dimopoulos, G. (2006) Melanization of Sephadex Beads in Anopheles gambiae is controlled by anti-Plasmodium immune factors. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 36:769-778 (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.9)


Mair G, Braks J.A.M, Garver L, Wiegant J.K.A.G, Hall Dirks, R.W, Khan S.M, Dimopoulos, G, Janse C.J, Waters A.P. (2006) Regulation of sexual development of Plasmodium by translational repression. Science, 313(5787):667-669. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.7)


Dong Y, Taylor H.E, and Dimopoulos, G. (2006) AgDscam, a hyper variable immunoglobulin domain containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system. PLoS Biology 4: e229. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 12.9)


Dong Y, Aguilar R, Xi Z, Warr E, Mongin E, and Dimopoulos, G. (2006) Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species. PLoS Pathogens 6: 1-13. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.1)


Heard NA, Holmes CC, Stephens DA, Hand DJ and Dimopoulos, G (2005) Bayesian Co-clustering of Anopheles Gene Expression Time Series: A Study of Immune Defense Response To Multiple Experimental Challenges. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16939-16944. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Xu, XJ, Dong, Y, Abraham, EG, Kocan, A, Srinivasan, P, Sinden,  RE, Ribeiro, JMC, Jacobs-Lorena, M, Kafatos, FC, and Dimopoulos, G. (2005) Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi-Plasmodium berghei interactions. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 142:76-87. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.9)


Both, M, Eckert, SE, Csukai, M, Dimopoulos, G, Spanu PD. (2005) Transcript profiles of Blumeria graminis development during infection reveal a cluster of genes that are potential virulence determinants. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 18(2):125-133. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.4)


Aguilar, R, Jedlicka, AE, Mintz, M, Mahairaki, V, Scott AL, and Dimopoulos, G. (2005) Global gene expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae responses to microbial challenge. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. ;35:709-719. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.8)


Abraham EG, Islam S, Srinivasan P, Ghosh AK, Valenzuela JG, Ribeiro LMC, Kafatos FC, Dimopoulos, G. and Jacobs-Lorena M. (2004) Analysis of the Plasmodium and Anopheles transcriptional repertoire during ookinete development and midgut invasion.  J Biol Chem. 279: 5573-5580. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 8.8)


Srinivasan P, Abraham EG, Ghosh AK, Valenzuela J, Ribeiro JMC, Dimopoulos, G, Kafatos FC, Adams JH, Fujioka J and Jacobs-Lorena M. (2004) Analysis of The Plasmodium and Anopheles transcriptomes during oocyst differentiation. J Biol Chem. 279: 5581-5587. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 8.8)


Wu MH, Dimopoulos, G, Mantalaris A, Varley J. (2003) The effect of hyperosmotic pressure on the antibody production and gene expression of GS-NS0 cell line. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. Nov 13. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 1.9)


Kumar S, Christophides GK, Cantera R, Charles B, Soon HY, Meister P, Dimopoulos, G, Kafatos FC, Barillas-Mury C. (2003) The role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on Plasmodium melanotic encapsulation in Anophele gambiaeProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100: 14139- 14144. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dessens, JT, Sidén-Kiamos, I, Jmendoza, J, Mahairaki, V, Khater, E, Vlachou, D, Xu, JX, Kafatos, FC, Louis, C, Dimopoulos, G. and Sinden, RE. (2003) SOAP, a novel malaria ookinete protein involved in mosquito midgut invasion and oocyst development. Mol Microbiol. 49:319-329. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 4.8)


Christophides GK, Zdobnov E, Barillas-Mury C, Birney E, Blandin S, Blass C, Brey PT, Collins FH, Danielli A, Dimopoulos, G, et al, (2002) Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae. Science 298:159-165. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Zdobnov EM, von Mering C, Letunic I, Torrents D, Suyama M, Copley RR, Christophides GK, Thomasova D, Holt RA, Subramanian GM, Mueller HM, Dimopoulos, G, etal, (2002) Comparative genome and proteome analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Science 298: 149-159. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 31.4)


Dimopoulos, G, Christophides GK, Meister S, Schultz J, White KP, Barillas-Mury C.and Kafatos FC. (2002) Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: Responses to injury, bacterial challenge and malaria infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99:8814-8819. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Zhang, D, Dimopoulos, G, Wolf, A, Minana, B, Kafatos, F.C. and Winzerling, J. (2002) Cloning and molecular characterization of two mosquito iron regulatory protein 1 genes.  Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 32, 579-589. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 3.9)


Tomas, A.M, Margos G, Dimopoulos, G, van Lin L.H.M, Sinha R, Lupetti P, Beetsma A.L, Rodriguez M.C, de Koning-Ward T.F, Karras M, Hager A, Mendoza J, Butcher G.A, Kafatos F.C, Janse C.J, Waters A.P, and Sinden R.E. (2001) Successful Transmission of the Malarial Parasite through the Mosquito Requires the Expression of P25 or P28: Bifunctional, Conserved, Mutually Redundant Ookinete Surface Proteins. EMBO J. 20, 3975-83. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 10.1)


Viziol, J, Bulet, P, Hoffmann, J.A, Kafatos, F.C, Müller, H-M and Dimopoulos, G. (2001) Gambicin: a novel immune responsive antimicrobial peptide from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12630-12635. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dimopoulos, G, Casavant, L, Chang, S, Scheetz, T, Roberts, C, Donohue, M, Schultz, J, Benes, V, Bork, P, Ansorge, W, Soares, B. and Kafatos, F. C. (2000) Anopheles gambie pilot gene discovery project: Identification of novel mosquito innate immunity genes from ESTs generated from immune competent cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 6619-6624. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Vizioli, J, Bulet, P, Lowenberger, C, Blass, C, Müller, H.-M, Dimopoulos, G, Hoffmann, J, Kafatos, F.C. and Richman, A. (2000) Cloning and analysis of a cecropin gene from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol, 9(1), 75 - 84. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.7)


Müller, H.-M, Dimopoulos, G, Blass, C. and Kafatos, F.C. (1999) A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. J. Biol. Chem, 274, 11727-11735. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 8.8)


Shen, Z, Dimopoulos, G, Kafatos, F.C. and Jacobs-Lorena, M. (1999) A cell surface mucin specifically expressed in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 6510-5615. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dessens, J.T, Beetsma, A.L, Dimopoulos, G, Wengelnik, K, Crisanti, A, Kafatos, F.C. and Sinden, R.E. (1999). CTPR is essential for mosquito infection by malaria ookinetes. EMBO J. 18, 6221-6227. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 10.1)


Arcà, B, Lombardo, F, de Lara Capurro Guimarães, M, della Torre, A, Dimopoulos, G, James. A. A. and Coluzzi, M. (1999)Trapping cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1516-1521. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dimopoulos, G, Seeley, D, Wolf A. and Kafatos, F. C. (1998) Malaria infection of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae activates immune responsive genes during critical transition stages of the parasite life cycle. EMBO J. 17, 6115-6123. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 10.1)


Richman, A, Dimopoulos, G, Seeley, D. and Kafatos, F. C. (1997) Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. EMBO J. 16, 6114-6119. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 10.1)


Dimopoulos, G, Richman, A, Müller, H.-M. and Kafatos, F. C. (1997) Molecular immune responses of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 11508-11513. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dimopoulos, G, Richman, A, della Torre, A, Kafatos, F. C, and Louis, C. (1996) Identification and characterization of differentially expressed cDNAs of the vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, 93, 13066-13071. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Dimopoulos, G, della Torre, A, Kumar, V, Kafatos, F. C, and Louis, C. (1996) Integrated Genetic Map of Anopheles gambiae: use of RAPD Polymorphisms for Genetic, Cytogenetic and STS landmarks. Genetics, 143, 953-960.


Favia, G, Dimopoulos, G, della Torre, A, Toure', Y. T, Coluzzi, M, and Louis, C. (1994) "Polymorphisms detected by random PCR distinguish between different chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 10315-10319. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 9.4)


Favia, G, Dimopoulos, G, and Louis, C. (1994) "Analysis of the Anopheles gambiae genome using RAPD markers" Insect Mol. Biol. 3, 149-157. (Journal Impact Factor: ~ 2.6)




Clayton AM, Dong Y and Dimopoulos G (2013) The Anopheles innate immune system in the defense against malaria infection. J Innate Immunity. In press.


Cirimotich CM, Ramirez JL and Dimopoulos G (2011) Native microbiota shape insect vector competence for human pathogens. Cell Host & Microbe. 10(4):307-10.


Cirimotich CM, Dong Y, Garver LS, Sim S, Dimopoulos G. (2009) Mosquito immune defenses against Plasmodium infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 34(4):387-95.


Sim S, Ramirez JL, and Dimopoulos G. (2009) Molecular discrimination of mosquito vectors and their pathogens. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 9(7):757-65.


Ramirez JL., Garver L., and Dimopoulos G. (2008) Challenges and Approaches for Mosquito Targeted Malaria Control. Curr. Mol. Medicine. 9(2):116-30.


Baton L, Garver L, Xi Z and Dimopoulos G. (2008) Functional genomics studies on the innate immunity of disease vectors. Insect Science, 15:15-27.


Dimopoulos G. (2007) Building a better mosquito: identifying the genes enabling malaria and dengue fever resistance in A. gambiae and A. aegypti mosquitoes. J Vis Exp. (5):233.


Baton, L, Garver, L.S, Xi, Z, and Dimopoulos, G. (2007) Functional genomics studies on the innate immunity of disease vectors. Insect Science. 15:15-27.


Baton, L, Dong, Y,  Li, J. and Dimopoulos, G. (2006) Variation in mosquito immunity to Plasmodium. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Parasitology.


Aguilar R, Dong Y, Warr E and Dimopoulos, G. (2005) Anopheles infection responses: laboratory models versus field malaria transmission systems. Acta Tropica 95(3):285-291.


Dimopoulos, G. (2003) Insect immunity and its implication in mosquito-malaria interactions.
Microreview Cell Microbiol.5: 3-14.


Dimopoulos, G, Müller, H-M,  Levashina, E.A. and F.C. Kafatos (2001) Innate immune defense against malaria infection in the mosquito. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13, 79-88.


Dimopoulos, G, Müller, H.-M. and Kafatos, F.C. (1999) How does Anopheles gambiae kill malaria parasites ? Parassitologia, 41, 169-175.


Arcà, B, Lombardo, F, de Lara Capurro Guimarães, M, della Torre, A, Spanos, L, Dimopoulos, G, Louis, C, James. A. A. and Coluzzi, M. (1999) Salivary gland-specific gene expression in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Parassitologia 41:483-487.


Thompson J, Richman A, Barillas-Mury C, Dimopoulos, G, Loukeris T.G, Müller H.-M, Wang R, Zheng L, Kafatos F.C. (1998) Immune responses of Anopheles gambiae and mosquito/parasite interactions. In “Strategies for Microbial Persistence” contributions from Nobel Symposium 106 on “Intracellular and Persistent Infections” June 7-10, 1998.




Sim S, Cirimotich CM, Ramirez JL, Souza-Neto JA, Dimopoulos G (2012) Dengue Virus-Mosquito Interactions and Molecular Methods of Vector Control. In Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. 2nd Edition. Edited by Duane J Gubler, Jeremy Farrar, Eng Ooi and Subhash Vasudevan. CABI. Under editorial processing.


Pike AD, Cirimotich CM and Dimopoulos G (2012) Mosquito Fitness Impact of Transgenic Immune Deployment. In Ecology of Vector Borne Disease Control, 3rd Edition. Edited by Sander Koenraadt and Willem Takken. Wageningen Academic Publishers.


Baton, L., Warr, E., Hoffman S. and Dimopoulos, G. (2007) Programmed cell death during malaria parasite infection of the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. In Programmed Cell Death in Protozoa. Edited by José Manuel Pérez Martin. Landes Bioscience, Springer.


Dimopoulos G (2008) Paperless Joy: Paperless Business & Lifestyle Design with Information & Communication Technology. 1st Edition, Digital Life Artist Inc.


Garver, L.S., Baton, L., and Dimopoulos, G. (2007) Mosquito Immunity to the Malaria Parasite. In Insect Immunology. Edited by Nancy Beckage. Elsevier.


Dimopoulos, G, Kafatos F.C, Waters A.P, Sinden R.E. (2002) Malaria Parasites and the Anopheles Mosquito. In Chemical Immunology Vol. 80 “Malaria Immunology“ 2nd ,pp. 27-49.


Dimopoulos, G. and Louis, C. (1997) Differential display of mRNA. In The molecular biology of disease vectors, a methods manual. Edited by Crampton, J. M, Beard, C. B. and Louis, C. (Chapman & Hall,  London), 261-267


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